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From: Dave K.
Date: Tue, 30 Mar 1999 23:01:17 EST

Attached is the document I have prepared (finally!) on some errors/misconceptions in DG. It stems from one (of too many) personal interests. I hope you all enjoy!


The first error that I encountered was on the dates concerning the formation of DG within the OSS. The handouts in DG state that orders were cut on 12 Feb 1942 to move P Division into the OSS. The only problem is that the OSS wasn't created until June 1942. Before this date, Donovan headed the Office of Coordinator of Strategic Information (COI), which grew out of his trips before US involvement in the war to Europe to study the Nazi 5th Columns. Returning, the COI was formed in June of 1941, to study and prepare propaganda studies and lay the formation for the Intelligence organizations of America. The OSS absorbed its parent organization and the rest is history.

I offer three possible solutions to the date problem.

1) Ignore it. If your players aren't likely to catch it, don't worry.

2) The old white-out solution. Use if your players will catch this.

3) Leave it and allow it to be caught! This is the option I use. The document is accurate but changed on purpose. This is part of a disinformation campaign by DG to hide in plain sight. Conspiracy buffs and others might find this piece of history and go public. The changed dates allow it to look like a fake, debunking it without even trying. I use this also on agents who get the document, because in my campaign, DG has its own secrets and skeletons in the closet. This can add to the air of paranoia and leads them to look at DG a little closer…

The next errors concern the info on the Special Operations Command. There are a variety of outdated listings and misrepresentations that I hope the following listings can help to correct. These listings are accurate and as up-to-date as I currently have. As these units constantly experiment with organization and many details are classified, there may be some small errors. I apologize for these.

U.S. Army:

75th Ranger Regiment

Organization-

3 battalions, headquarters, and headquarters company

1st Battalion is located at Hunter Army AirField, Georgia

2nd Battalion is located at Fort Lewis, Washington

3rd Battalion is located at Fort Benning, Georgia

Headquarters is located at Fort Benning, Georgia

HQ contains: Commanding Officer (colonel), his staff, special staff (communications officer, fire support officer, surgeon, staff judge advocate, USAF weather officer and USAF tactical air control officer), HQ Company Staff, Fire Support Element, Communications Platoon, Reconnaissance Platoon, Medical Treatment Team, and RIP (Ranger Indoctrination Program)

Each Battalion contains:

3 Combat Companies with: 3 Rifle Platoons (about 45 men each), Weapons Platoon (about 23 men). Each Rifle Platoon is made up of 3 Rifle Squads of three Fire teams each and a machine gun squad. All squad leaders are at least Staff Sergeants and team leaders are Sergeants. Specialists (equivalent to Corporals) who have the Ranger Tab (attended Ranger School) may be team leaders when necessary.

Battalion Headquarters and Headquarters Company (HHC) with: Company headquarters, Fire Support Team, USAF FAC Team, Medical Team, Communications Team, Support Section (Food Service, etc.)

-Each Battalion rotates for a month as the Ranger Ready Force. They must be able to deploy anywhere in the world within eighteen hours.

Training:

-All must have attended Jump School/be Airborne qualified

-All officers and NCOs must be Ranger School graduates and all Officers must have served at least a year in a leadership position in a non-Ranger unit (be at least a First Lieutenant)

Ranger Indoctrination Program (RIP): 3 1/2-week program designed to weed out those who can't make it. Timed marches/runs, swim tests, and military skill testing. After this is completed, the men are considered Rangers and go to the Battalions for operational training. 6-12 months later they may attend the Ranger School

Ranger School:

Ranger Assessment Phase (RAP)-5 days. Testing for admittance to the Ranger School. PT Tests and military knowledge tests. Conducted at Fort Benning, Georgia.

1st Phase-Camp Darby, Georgia. Covers Hand-to-Hand Combat, Patrolling, Advanced Land Navigation, Leadership, Survival Training, PT/Obstacle Courses, Field Exercises.

2nd Phase-Dugway Proving Grounds, Utah. Covers Desert Survival, Patrolling, Battle Drills, Advanced Combat Techniques (Ambushes, crossing barbed wire, assaults, etc.), Field Training Exercises.

3rd Phase-Camp Merrill, Georgia. Covers mountaineering operations.

4th Phase- Eglin Air Force Base, Florida. Covers Jungle/Swamp Operations, additional Advanced Combat Techniques, Small Boat Operations, Field Training Exercises.

Operational Training: each Battalion trains 48 weeks a year to maintain performance. Physical training is done five days a week. During a three-year cycle each battalion trains in extreme cold and in amphibious operations. Jungle, mountain and desert training are done once a year, at least. Urban training is conducted every six months.

Missions:

-Infiltration/Exfiltration by land, air and sea.

-Conduct Direct Action

-Conduct Raids

-Recovery of Personnel and Special Equipment

-Conduct Conventional or Special Light Infantry Operations

-High number of NCOs

-Highest percentage of NCOs who later become Officers in the Army

Special Forces

Organization:

SF Groups

1st Area of Operation: Pacific and Eastern Asia. Located: Fort Lewis, WA.

3rd Area of Operation: Caribbean and Western Africa. Located: Fort Bragg, NC.

5th Area of Operation: Southwest Asia and Northeastern Africa. Located: Fort Campbell, KY.

7th Area of Operation: Central and South America. Located: Fort Bragg, NC.

10th Area of Operation: Europe and Western Asia. Located: Fort Carson, CO.

11th (Army Reserve) Located: Fort Meade, Maryland

12th (Army Reserve) Located: Arlington Heights, Illinois

19th (National Guard) Area of Operation: Asia. Located: Camp Williams, UT.

20th (National Guard) Area of Operation: Europe and Western Asia. Located: Birmingham, AL.

2 Forward Deployed Companies (one in Germany and one in South Korea)

Supporting Units:

112th Signal Battalion

528th Support Battalion

4th Psychological Operations Group

SF Group Support Company

Military Intelligence (MI) Detachment

Service Detachment

Signal Detachment

Medical Section

Personnel Section

SF Battalions (Headquarters/support elements known as C-Teams/C-Detachments)

3 Battalions per Group

1 C-Detachment:

Detachment Commander (Lt. Colonel)

Executive Officer (Major)

Staff with: Adjutant (Captain), Intelligence officer (Captain), Operations officer (Captain), Supply officer (Captain), Command Sergeant-Major, Intelligence NCO (Master Sergeant), Operations NCO (Master Sergeant), Supply NCO (Sergeant 1st Class), Administrative Supervisor (Staff Sergeant), Senior Field Radio Repairman (Sergeant), and 4 Radio Operators (Sergeants)

3 B-Detachments

18 A-teams

SF Battalion Support Company

Military Intelligence (MI) Detachment (has 3 SOT-As [Special Operation Team-A] that deploy with SFOD-As to provide SIGINT and EW capabilities. Has no interrogation teams attached.)

SF Battalion Service Detachment

SF Company (Headquarters/support element known as B-Teams/B-Detachments)

3 Companies per Battalion (A (Alpha), B (Bravo) and C (Charlie) Companies)

1 B-Detachment:

Detachment Commander (Major)

Executive Officer (Captain)

Staff with: Adjutant (Captain), Intelligence officer (Captain), Operations officer (Captain), Supply officer (Captain), Command Sergeant-Major, Intelligence NCO (Master Sergeant), Operations NCO (Master Sergeant), Engineering NCO (Sergeant 1st Class), 1-2 Weapons NCOs (Sergeant 1st Class), Medical Specialist (Sergeant 1st Class), Communications Supervisor (Sergeant 1st Class), Supply Sergeant (Sergeant 1st Class), Administrative Supervisor (Staff Sergeant), Assistant Supply Sergeant (Staff Sergeant), Preventative Medical Specialist (Specialist 6th Class), Combat Engineer Specialist (Sergeant), 4 Radio Operators (Sergeants)

6 A-Teams per Company (1 HALO, 1 SCUBA, 4 "Ruck")

SF A-Teams (Special Forces Operational Detachment-Alpha)

Detachment Commander: Captain

Executive Officer: Warrant Officer

Operations NCO/Team Sergeant: Master Sergeant

Intelligence & Operations NCO: Sergeant First Class

Weapons NCO: Sergeant First Class

Assistant Weapons NCO: Staff Sergeant

Engineer NCO: Sergeant First Class

Assistant NCO Engineer: Staff Sergeant

Medical NCO: Sergeant First Class

Assistant Medical NCO: Staff Sergeant

Communications NCO: Sergeant First Class

Assistant Communications NCO: Staff Sergeant

Missions:

Unconventional Warfare (UW)

Direct Action (DA)

Special Reconnaissance (SR)

Foreign Internal Defense (FID)

Counter-Terrorism (CT)

Psychological Operations (PSYOP)

Civil Affairs (CA)

Coalition Warfare/Support

-Special Projects Teams:

These teams are not on declassified Special Forces TOEs (Tables of Organization and Equipment). SF troops assigned to them are removed temporarily from the SF command structure and placed under other DoD departments. Known in SF as "long hair teams" due to their relaxed grooming standards. They provide various Black and Grey operational services.

Training:

The Q (Qualification) Course

Special Forces Assessment and Selection (21 days)- A 3-phase battery of tests to determine intelligence, aptitude, foreign language ability, physical endurance and mental stability.

Phase 2/ MOS Training (approx. 2mos.)- This is where the trainees learn their specialty. There are courses for SF Officer, SF Weapons, SF Communications, SF Medical (the longest at 23 weeks), SF Engineering and SF Intelligence and Operations

Phase 13- This puts the team together for training in field craft, advanced specialties, etc. It culminates with "Robin Sage," a 2-week guerrilla wargame to show what has been learned.

Note: The SF Q Course is constantly undergoing refinement and this is the current incarnation. Few older SF vets went through this. Phase 13 is so called because it incorporates elements of the old Phase 1 & 3. Some training has been dropped/moved in this layout (Such as most of the survival training, which now resides at the SERE [Survival, Escape, Resistance and Evasion] School/Course)

-Unit identification:

A-Teams are numbered as ODA-### (Example-ODA-345). This stands for- Operational Detachment Alpha, with the first number represent the group, the second and third representing battalion and team designation. ODAs ending in 4 designate a HALO group and ending in a 5 designate a Combat Diver/SCUBA team (This is true in 3rd Group, anyway, and the numbers are probably true SF-wide).

-A soldier must be an E-4 or higher to apply for SF

-When talking to members of SF remember they are Special Forces, not "Green Berets." You will be informed that they are troopers, not hats!

1st Special Forces Operational Detachment- Delta

Organization-

3 Squadrons, broken down into an unknown number of Troops.

Each Troop has 16 men. These are further broken down into 4 4-man squads. Each squad is color-coded for organizational and control purposes.

There are about 800 members of Delta, with about 225 "shooters". Of the 225 operators, 1/3 are snipers.

Detachment designations:

D- Command and Control (The Headquarters)

E- Communications, Intelligence and Administrative Support (includes finance, logistics, medical detachment, research and development, technology and electronics, etc.)

-The medical detachment maintains special doctors at Fort Bragg and various other bases around the country secretly, to provide medical assistance as needed.

-"The Funny Platoon": This is the in-house Intelligence arm of Delta. They grew out of a long-running dispute/rivalry with ISA. They will infiltrate a country ahead of a Delta intervention to gather intelligence. They are the only US Special Operation Force to employ woman in a combat role (the only other SOF that has employed women at all has been Army Special Forces, and then, only in a training role).

F- Operational Arm (The operators themselves)

-Delta has acquired a small Aviation Squadron for limited in-house use. This consists of 12 AH-6 Attack and MH-6 Transport helicopters. These have been painted in civilian colors and have fake tail number Ids. They still rely on the 160th SOAR and USAF for larger operations.

-All Delta members have pagers for 24-hour call-ups.

-All operators in Delta have been issued Federal Weapons Permits, which allow them to travel anywhere armed. They are ALWAYS armed.

-Delta has relaxed grooming standards (long hair, earrings, etc.) to assist in undercover ops.

-All members of Delta and their families are given cover stories to prevent their unit affiliation from leaking out.

-Delta is almost all US Army, but members of the Reserves, National Guard, and the other services can also apply. They will be placed on duty with the unit if selected and serve a 3-year tour with the unit.

-UNCONFIRMED: I have come across several times the statement that Delta and SEAL Team 6 no longer go by those names. They are left on for dealing with the public but are referred to by some other designation in official communications. This, as I said, is unconfirmed, so use at your own discretion.

Missions:

Counter-Terrorism (Note: In the military, Counter-terrorism and anti-terrorism are not the same thing. Counter-terrorism is the actions taken after a terrorist action has begun. Anti-terrorism are measures taken to keep terrorist actions from occurring in the first place.)

POW recovery ops during wartime

Strategic Reconnaissance

Proactive Counter-terrorism (Hunting individual terrorist leaders, attacks on terrorist camps, etc.)

Special Assault

Security

Assist in Nuclear terror threats/recovery of nuclear devices

160th Special Operations Aviation Regiment (Airborne)

- Task Force 160 was reorganized and designated as the 160th SOAR and assigned to US Army Special Operations Command in May 1990

- Known as "The Night Stalkers"

Organization-

1st Battalion- Located: Fort Campbell, Kentucky. 18 AH-6, 18 MH-6 and 30 MH-60 helicopters. Some elements forward deployed in Panama.

617th Aviation Detachment (

2nd Battalion- Located: Fort Campbell, Kentucky. 24 MH-47 Helicopters.

3rd Battalion- Located: Hunter Army Airfield, Georgia. 10 MH-60 and 8 MH-47 helicopters. Directly supports the Rangers.

245th Aviation Battalion (Oklahoma National Guard). 25 AH-6, 15 UH-60 (to be replaced by MH-60) and 23 UH-1 Helicopters.

Training-

Officer/Pilot- 14 Week Qualification Course, followed by two other qualification levels: Fully Mission Qualified (progression time: 12-18 months) and Flight lead (progression time: 36-48 months)

Enlisted/Support- 3 week Qualification Course

ISA Note:

The Army did not disband the ISA in 1983. They are still active today. The group was working on a plan for securing hostages held in Beirut in the 80s. This plan fell through (and the chosen course of action by the government became known as the Iran-Contra Affair). It was this op that also led to the rivalry between the ISA and Delta (and the creation of Delta's "Funny Platoon"). The ISA conducted classified but acknowledged actions during the Gulf War. Most of the ISA's operatives are former Army SF and should use their template.

U.S. Navy:

Underwater Demolition Teams

The UDTs were disbanded in 1983, absorbed into the Navy SEALs. They had undergone the same training as SEALs, with their mission ending at the waterline. They conducted operations dealing with hydrographic survey, obstacle clearance, general dive operations and assisted with space capsule recovery. Since the training was considered to be redundant with the SEALs, the UDTs were reorganized as SEALs and the SEALs took on their old missions.

Before their disbanding, the UDTs consisted of:

UDT 11 Located at Coronado, California. Became SEAL Team 5

UDT 12 Located at Coronado, California. Became SDV 1.

UDT 21 Located at Norfolk, Virginia. Became SEAL Team 4.

UDT 22 Located at Norfolk, Virginia. Became SDV 2.

Each Team consisted of 15 officers and 111 enlisted men.

SEAL Teams

Organization-

SEAL Team 1- Area of Operation: Southeast Asia

SEAL Team 2- Area of Operation: North Europe

SEAL Team 3- Area of Operation: Middle East

SEAL Team 4- Area of Operation: South America

SEAL Team 5- Area of Operation: South Korea

SEAL Team 6- Area of Operation: Counter-terrorism (Worldwide) (Many of the special notes/provisions that apply to Delta above apply here)

SEAL Team 8- Area of Operation: Africa

(Each Team consists of 30 Officers and 181 enlisted men, with a headquarters and 14 platoons of two officers and 12 enlisted each. Each platoon is further divided into 2 squads of one officer and seven enlisted men.)

SDV Team 1 (20 officers and 120enlisted men)

SDV Team 2 (24 officers and 159 enlisted men)

Special Boat Squadron 1

Special Boat Squadron 2

Light Attack Helicopter Squadron 4 (HAL-4) (The Redwolves)

Light Attack Helicopter Squadron 5 (HAL-5) (the Blue Hawks)

Forward Deployed Units:

Kodiak Alaska Detachment

Naval Special Warfare Unit 1- Subic Bay, Philippines

Naval Special Warfare Unit 2- Machrihanish, Scotland

Navy Special Warfare Unit 3- Roosevelt Roads, Puerto Rico

(These NSWUs consist of command and control elements of 17 officers and enlisted men, to which SEAL units are attached)

Plus a forward-deployed platoon in Panama

Missions:

Direct Action

Special Reconnaissance

Unconventional Warfare

Foreign Internal Defense/Counterinsurgency

Provide guides for intelligence agents during infiltration/exfiltration

Service Escape and Evasion networks during wartime

Counterterrorism

Training:

BUD/S (Basic Underwater Demolition/SEAL) Training-Coronado, California

Fourth Phase (Yes, this is first)-A newer, pre-BUD/S training and conditioning program to better prepare applicants for BUD/S and lessen the drop-out rate.

Phase One (7 weeks)-Physical conditioning and basic skills. The fourth week is the infamous "Hell Week" which runs from Sunday night to Friday. Those that survive Hell Week gain 3 weeks of hydrographic survey, beach reconnaissance and underwater mapping training.

Phase Two (9 weeks)-Land Warfare and Demolitions

Phase Three (7 Weeks)-SCUBA and Underwater Techniques

US Army Basic Airborne (3 Weeks)

After this, the trainee is considered a SEAL. He will join a team for 6 months of probation and additional training (known as SEAL Tactical Training [STT])

U.S.M.C.:

Recon Battalion

Each Marine Division has a Recon battalion of approx. 500 men (including HQ and support services). They are trained to operate just forward of the frontlines or directly in front of/alongside conventional Marine units. (These are the Marines in the movie Heartbreak Ridge). These are different from the Force Recon Marines below. There training is still fierce and many later move into FR. Not all members are SCUBA and/or Airborne qualified.

Force Recon

Note:

There has been considerable reorganization of the Force Recon Marine structure recently. In the 2nd Division, both 2nd Force Recon and 2nd Recon Battalion have been merged. They have developed a structure where you move through a series of platoons based on experience and training. These platoons are gathered into 3 companies. The first company (A Company) is for Marines in various stages of training. The next company (B Company) is for Marines who deploy for tactical recon (just beyond the frontlines). The final company (C Company) specializes in Deep/Strategic recon. The 2nd is based at Camp Lejune, North Carolina. The other Force Recon companies survived and are organized as follows:

1st Assigned to 1st Marine Division, Camp Pendelton, California

3rd Assigned to 3rd Marine Division, Camp S.D. Butler, Okinawa, Japan

4th Assigned to 4th Marine Division (Reserve), New Orleans, Louisiana

5th Assigned to III MEF (Marine Expeditionary Force), Camp S.D. Butler, Okinawa, Japan

Each FR Company consists of:

Headquarters (5 officers and 26 enlisted men)

Supply Services Platoon (1 officer and 35 enlisted men)

6 Recon Platoons (1 officer and 14 enlisted men)

Recon teams operate usually in teams of 4 men (some experimenting is going on with six man teams)

Missions:

-Primarily Deep/Strategic Recon

-Despite many years of resisting (often unsuccessfully) being used for other SpecOps missions (Direct Action and so on), FR has been incorporating training for these missions. They now have a counterterror and direct action capability. The 5th specializes in these sorts of ops, also.

Training:

All Recon-

RIP (Recon Indoctrination Phase)-Selection and Assessment

Amphibious Recon School (9 1/2 Weeks)

Force Recon-

US Army Basic Airborne

SCUBA School

NOTE: Until recently (1997), Recon/FR were considered Secondary MOS (Specialized training, essentially). This meant you could not spend your entire career with the unit, instead serving 2-3 year tours. This has been changed, however, allowing continual service and a primary MOS.

ANGLICO (Air-Naval Gun Liaison Company)

ANGLICO companies function much as Force Recon Marines above, receiving very similar training, but with the key difference being their mission. FR is there to gather data, sometimes staying in place for weeks. ANGLICO gets into position and once targets have been observed, begins directing aerial and naval gunfire onto targets. There is an ANGLICO unit with every SRIG.

Training:

US Army Basic Airborne

SCUBA

Ranger

ANGLICO in-house tactical training (ongoing)

Security Force Battalion (Not to be confused with the Marine Security Guard Battalion, which provides embassy security)

Organization:

2 Battalions (Atlantic-based at Norfolk, Virginia and Pacific- based at Mare Island, California)

59 Officers and 2004 Marines

Commanding Officer- Major

Each battalion has six companies and various Mobile Training Teams (MTTs) and sub-units

Mission:

-Both Antiterrorist, Counterterrorist and Security for US Navy and Marine Corps ships and bases

FAST Company (originally one per Security Battalion)

Organization:

321 Marines, Task organized based upon mission.

Includes:

Headquarters element

Four-five "guard" platoons (one officer and 49+ enlisted men)

Weapons platoon (29-man MG section, 7-man 60mm Mortar section and 13 man SMAW section)

Each Platoon has 2-man HQ and 3 16+ Man squads (divided into Team Leader and two guard teams)

Recently, several more FAST Companies have been brought online from Security Force Detachments reassigned, each beginning to practice further specialization.

Note: Both units have Designated Marksmen (DM)-sniper-trained individuals

Mission:

Various tasks concerning security and antiterrorism missions directed at the United States Navy, USMC and sensitive facilities and persons (recently deployed to Saudi Arabia to test security in the wake of the bombings there and providing security for the US ambassador to Somalia during the intervention there).

Counterterrorist response force for the Navy/Marine Corps

Nuclear safe-guarding for the United States Navy

Training:

Both Security Forces and FAST-

(All members must have completed SOI [School of Infantry])

Security Force School (22 Days-Longer for NCOs and officers)-Teaches Combat marksmanship (Shotgun and pistol-all Security Forces are dual armed), Room Clearing, etc.

FAST Training (5 weeks)-Additional training in Close Quarters Battle, Submachine gun employment (MP-5), etc

NOTE: Security Forces/FAST is a Secondary MOS. Essentially, this means specialized training. Members do not spend their entire career in the unit, instead doing 2-3 year tours before returning to other units. Reapplication to the unit after a "normal" tour often happens.

Scout/Snipers

These are small, two man teams organized and placed into the SRIGs of various units. They are used to interdict key personnel and materials during wartime/operations. There are several teams attached at both the battalion and regimental level.

Training:

A several week selection and training process that develop additional marksmanship and advanced fieldcraft.

NOTE:

Several times I have noticed that a reference to Marine special operations forces being gathered into a unit known as 2nd Recon. I find no backing for this. I feel that this is a misrepresentation of the fact that the various specops units assigned to the Fleet Marine Forces are placed under an administrative umbrella in each division known as SRIG (Surveillance, Reconnaissance and Intelligence Group). This provides headquarters and logistical functions to units such as Force Recon, Scout-Snipers and so on. Each division has a SRIG, not just 2nd Division.

U.S. Air Force:

Air Force Special Operations Command

Organization-

AFSOC Headquarters. Located at Hurlburt Field, Florida.

16th Special Operations Wing. Located at Hurlburt Field. MC-130 E/H (8th Special Operations Squadron flies the E, 15th SOS flies the H), AC-130 H/U (4th SOS flies the U, 16th SOS flies the H), MH-53J (20th SOS), MC-130P (9th SOS-prepositioned at Eglin AFB, Florida), MH-60G (55th SOS), C-130 E, UH-1 N, (the 6th SOS is the Wing's combat aviation advisory unit)

352nd Special Operations Group. Located at RAF Mildenhall, United Kingdom. MH-53J (21st SOS), MC-130 H (7th SOS), MC-130 P (67th SOS), MC-130N (Also contains 321st Special Tactics Squadron- see units below)

353rd Special Operations Group. Located at Kadena AFB, Okinawa, Japan. MC-130H/P (1st SOS flies the H, 17th SOS flies the P), MH-53J (31st SOS, located at Osan Air Base, Korea) (Also contains the 320th Special Tactics Squadron- see units below)

193rd Special Operations Wing (Air National Guard). Located at Harrisburg IAP, Pennsylvania. EC-130E. Contains 123rd Special Tactics Flight (Standiford Field, Kentucky), 107th Air Weather Flight (Selfridge ANGB, Michigan), 146th AWF (Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania), 181st AWF (Dallas, Texas)

919th Special Operations Wing (Air Force Reserve). Located at Duke Field, Florida. MC-130 E/P. Contains 711th SOS (MC-130 E) and 5th SOS (MC-130 P).

720th Special Tactics Group. Located at Hurlburt Field Florida. Contains the 10th Combat Weather Squadron, 21st Special Tactics Squadron (Pope AFB, North Carolina), 22nd Special Tactics Squadron (McChord AFB, Washington), 23rd Special Tactics Squadron, 24th Special Tactics Squadron (Pope AFB, North Carolina)

USAF Special Operations School. Located at Hurlburt Field, Florida.

18th Flight Test Squadron. Located at Hurlburt Field, Florida.

AFSOC Air Support Operations Squadron. Located at Fort Bragg, North Carolina.

Total Aircraft:

8 AC-130H Spectre gunships

13 AC-130U Spooky gunships

36 MH-53J Pave Low helicopters

10 MH-60G Pave Hawk helicopters

8 MC-130E Combat Talon I

21 MC-130H Combat Talon II

5 EC-130E (PSYOP aircraft)

8 EC-130 Airborne Command, Control, and Communications

24 MC-130P Combat Shadow (Refueling)

2 UH-1N helicopters

Mission:

-Provide infiltration/exfiltration for agents and special operations forces.

-Provide resupply to forces in the field

-Provide aerial fire support/fire support control for special operations forces

-Other special operations (PSYOPS support, BLU-82 operations, etc.)

Combat Controller Teams

Organization:

Organized into the same units as Pararescue below. Additional members are tasked to various special operations units to provide coordination. Members may be further tasked to deployed teams to provide on the ground assistance.

Training:

Combat Control/Pararescue Selection- Lackland AFB, Texas (12 Weeks)

Special Forces Combat Diver- Key West Naval Air Station, Florida (5 Weeks)

US Army Basic Airborne- Fort Benning, Georgia (3 Weeks)

US Army Basic Military Freefall (HALO)- Fort Bragg, North Carolina (4 Weeks)

US Air Force Combat Survival- Fairchild Air Force Base, Washington (3 Weeks)

US Air Force Air Traffic Control- Kessler Air Force Base, Mississippi (10 Weeks)

Combat Control- Pope Air Force Base, North Carolina (12 Weeks)

Mission:

-Provide forward Air Traffic Control Zones in combat areas (Drop Zones, Landing Zones, Extraction Zones, Recovery Zones)

-Provide ground based fire control for AC-130 operations

-Command and control, surveying capabilities, limited weather observations, demolitions to clear obstructions

-Scarlet Beret

Para-Rescue

Organization:

Active-

720th Special Tactics Group. Located at Hurlburt Field, Florida

21st Special Tactics Squadron. Located at Pope AFB, North Carolina

22nd Special Tactics Squadron. Located at McChord AFB, Washington

23rd Special Tactics Squadron. Located at Hurlburt Field, Florida

24th Special Tactics Squadron. Located at Pope AFB, North Carolina

320th Special Tactics Squadron. Located at Kadena AFB, Okinawa, Japan.

321st Special Tactics Squadron. Located at RAF Mildenhall, United Kingdom.

41st Rescue Squadron. Located at Moody AFB, Georgia.

66th Rescue Squadron. Located at Nellis AFB, Nevada.

Kirtland AFB Detachment, New Mexico

Lackland AFB Detachment, Texas

56th Rescue Squadron. Located at Keflavik Naval Air Station, Iceland.

Kadena AFB Detachment, Okinawa, Japan

Guard/Reserve-

106th Rescue Wing. Located at Suffolk County, New York.

Moffett Field Detachment, California.

Portland IAP Detachment, Oregon.

301st Rescue Wing. Located at Patrick AFB, Florida.

210th Rescue Wing. Located at Kulis ANGB, Alaska.

305th Rescue Wing. Located at Davis-Monthan AFB, Arizona.

Training:

Combat Control/Pararescue Selection- Lackland AFB, Texas (12 Weeks)

Special Forces Combat Diver- Key West Naval Air Station, Florida (5 Weeks)

US Army Basic Airborne- Fort Benning, Georgia (3 Weeks)

US Army Basic Military Freefall (HALO)- Fort Bragg, North Carolina (4 Weeks)

US Air Force Combat Survival- Fairchild Air Force Base, Washington (3 Weeks)

Special Operations Combat Medic Course- Fort Bragg, North Carolina (22 Weeks)

Pararescue Recovery Specialist Course- Kirtland Air Force Base, New Mexico (20 Weeks)

Mission:

-Search and Rescue (SAR)

-Combat Search and Rescue (CSAR)

-Recovery support for NASA

-Other limited operations as applicable

-Maroon Beret

Special Operations Meteorologists

Organization:

AFSOC Units:

10th Combat Weather Squadron

HQ- Located at Hurlburt Field, Florida

Detachment 1- Located at Fort Lewis, Washington. Supports 1st Special Forces Group.

Detachment 2- Located at Fort Campbell, Kentucky. Supports 5th Special Forces Group and 160th Special Operations Aviation Regiment.

Detachment 3- Located at Fort Carson, Colorado. Supports 10th Special Forces Group.

Detachment 4- Located at Fort Benning, Georgia. Supports 75th Ranger Regiment, 2nd & 3rd Ranger Battalion.

Detachment 5- Located at Fort Bragg, North Carolina. Supports 3rd Special Forces Group, 7th Special Forces Group.

OL-A,(Operating Location-Alpha) 10CWS- Located at Fort Bragg, North Carolina. Located at Hunter Army AirField, Georgia. Supports 1st Ranger Battalion.

OL-A, 321st Special Tactics Squadron- Located at Panzer Kaserne, Germany. Supports 1st Battalion, 10th Special Forces Group.

OL-A, 320th Special Tactics Squadron- Located at Torii Station, Japan. Supports 1st Battalion, 1st Special Forces Group.

720th Special Tactics Squadron- Located at Hurlburt Field, Florida. Staff position.

ACC Units:

18th Air Support Operations Squadron- Located at Fort Campbell, Kentucky. Supports 101st Airborne Division

18th Weather Squadron- Located at Fort Bragg, North Carolina. Supports XVIII Airborne Corps, 82nd Airborne Division, 18th Aviation Brigade.

Training:

Air Force Forecasting Training

Jump School

Limited tactical training

Mission:

-Provide meteorological and oceanographic information in/for special operations theaters, including tactical infiltration, forecasting, working with host nations personnel, mission tailoring and data collection/analysis.

-Operate in either forward bases or behind enemy lines.

-Grey beret.

THE MISSIONS:

Counterproliferation: Seize, recover, disable, render ineffective or destroy weapons of mass destruction.

Counterterrorism: Provide counterterrorist and antiterrorist capabilities to detect, deter and/or respond to terrorist threats.

Foreign Internal Defense: Work with host nations to assist in organizing and training military forces. Work in an advisory/assistance role.

Special Reconnaissance: Deep surveillance/reconnaissance missions well behind enemy lines or into denied areas.

Direct Action: Short-duration raids, strikes, attacks, etc. to capture/recover/damage/destroy enemy personnel, material or sites.

Psychological Operations: Weaken enemy resolve to continue operations and weaken morale or induce/reinforce friendly attitudes/morale

Civil Affairs: assist/advise friendly host nations on maintaining infrastructure (repair roads, dig wells, train police, etc.) and assist commanders in establishing/maintaining relations in combat zones.

Unconventional Warfare: Organize, train and assist guerrilla forces

Information Operations: Attacks on enemy information-systems and defense of friendly ones

Coalition Support: Assist multinational operating forces, coordinate between national forces and aid in communications, operations and training.

Humanitarian Assistance: Assist relief organizations in providing aid in natural or man-made disasters and war zones.

Security Assistance: Assist in training, development, etc. in DoD security programs and training

Combat Search and Rescue: Penetrate combat zones/air defense networks to rescue pilots and deny downed technology to enemies.

Humanitarian Demining Operations: provide training to host nations in reducing or eliminating threats posed to noncombatants by mines/explosive devices.

Counterdrug Activities: Assist or train host nation's counterdrug forces to monitor and counter drug trafficking.

Special Activities: Conduct actions abroad in support of national policy that keeps the role of the US secret.

Peace operations: Assist peacekeeping operations and forces.

Some Observations:

One of the things that many will ask is who is the best. The answer is-none of them is "the best." Every member of one of these units, both in America and around the world is a professional. They receive training and gain experience that makes each one very special. In terms of being the best, this is like measuring sports teams. Armchair generals will scream for their "home teams" based on pride (and many times misconceptions from too many movies/books). With any success, they will point and shout about their team. With any defeat, many will scream that the unit is broken and needs major fixing.

Talk to almost anyone that is truly within the community. Most have served alongside members of the other units and have the highest respect for them. I've talked to SEALS and Force Recon men who have nothing but praise for the other. I've talked to SF men who thank god for their AF and SOAR comrades. It is usually the want-to-be who engage in this best thing.

Also, the training that each member undergoes is very similar. A Force Recon member will have many of the same skills as SEALs or SF. After a FR member has been through Marine Basic Training, School of Infantry, and Recon School, there will be next to no difference between him and a SEAL or so on. As anyone of these men advances through his career, they will undergo further training and experience that will refine them. With cross-training between units and schools, many will serve together and grow. The lines will blur. Who would be better-a USAF Pararescue or SF medical NCO? They both receive almost identical training and the Pararescue probably will get more real-world experience in his field dealing with more mundane ops such as aircraft crashes. Who would be better-a Marine NCO with 20 years under his belt, several real world deployments/actions, and a host of schools under his belt but never deployed with a specops unit or a 20 year old Ranger with a few months in his unit, with training but little experience? How would any of these units do their jobs properly without USAF, SOAR, SDV and so on?

Even looking at training provides little true insight despite surface appearances. Looking at SEAL training, 26 weeks of intensive "fun" for example, doesn't show the real picture. Other training may seem shorter, so it must be lesser, right? Wrong. Units in the USMC and Army already have much of the basic skills taught to them that SEALs have to learn. In Rangers, SF and Recon, for example, they have already learned weapons handling, land navigation, tactics, and so on. The Navy men going into SEALs have to learn this and more. All these units have very tough selection and training, with none being truly better than any other.

Looking at missions doesn't provide the answer either. Most of these units have specializations that they are very good at. But years of misuse and misunderstanding, coupled with changing world roles, have caused most units to learn the skills used by the others. Force Recon has been constantly misused to the point that it just developed and accepted missions beyond its recon role. There are SF teams that are SCUBA qualified that are easily the equal of a SEAL diver. There are SEALs that are easily the equal of SF members when it comes to guerrilla warfare. It goes on and on. Even a failure in mission doesn't paint a picture of a lesser unit. When the SEALs failed at Paitilla Air Field in Panama, while attempting a large unit operation to take the area, it really doesn't say the unit was bad. Bad luck, misuse and a mission that they were not really trained to do is what hurt the operation, not a lack of individual skill or daring. The SEALs attempted a Ranger type op that was never part of their bag of tricks before. The mission may have failed but lessons were learned and the force as a whole grew.

Even overseas, the distinctions are blurred. A third world nation's specops might not have the money or fancy equipment others have. Still, when you get them in their backyard, they have many advantages to offset that.

Traditionally, the SAS was considered (and still is considered by many) to be the best. At one time, when others specops were in their infancy, this had merit. With the degree of training, cross-training and experience, this is not the case. Just like the reasons listed above, the current force is the equal of any other, neither better nor worse than their brothers are.

To be honest, many civilians could receive the exact same training, if they want to pursue it (and have the money). Parachuting and SCUBA are available. Firearms and fieldcraft schools exist. What really matters in training, is the intensive training that is carried out under brutal conditions. This crams a lot of info into a small package in a short period of time and allows deployment. It is not so much the training that is special, but the men.

It is really a mixing of apples and oranges in many cases, and purely academic rambling to decide who is best. These are special men with special training and missions. They are all fantastic warriors in their own sense.

Another general note, for role-playing, is the general attitude produced within these units. These are broad generalizations, not applicable to every member if the unit.

SEALs tend to be the most elitist of the specops. They tend to be the most clannish and aloof.

Marine Recon and the USAF Ground elements (Pararescue, etc.) tend to be the most approachable. In FR, this tends to be because their belonging to Recon is played down. The USMC has always sort of had a love-hate relationship with the "elite within an elite." Most FR Marines play up the fact that they are Marines first, with a special job to do. In the USAF, this trend seems to be because of the non-specops side of their work. These men do jobs every day that don't involve specops and it seems to dilute their elitism (not their skills, their attitudes).

Rangers hold a special pride in their unit and its history/tradition/discipline. This manifests itself in different ways for different men. They are all professional and carry themselves as such, sometimes clannish and proud, sometimes not.

SF has had an up and down history. Each member considers themselves elite and professional. Being in the limelight the most has softened their accessibility. While still clannish, they have been trained to deal with people and have faced much public interest or scrutiny. This manifests as sort of limited trust/mistrust way of dealing with outsiders.

SpecOps pilots tend to have the same attitude as fighter jocks. They are "the best of the best top gun types." They have a sort of controlled recklessness that shows through.

As I have said, these are very broad generalizations. There are quiet SEALs and brash SFers. I have included the above for a general way of portraying members for role-playing.

With the exception of certain elements of Delta, remember that SpecOps troops are NOT intelligence agents. They may gather battlefield intelligence but they are not trained for undercover intel ops. Sometimes, they are misused, however…

Forget the lone wolves you see in the movies. SpecOps troops are trained to operate as part of a team. You will almost never see one deployed alone for anything. They will usually have at least one other trooper with them for any mission.

SpecOps troopers are almost never betrayed and left behind as shown in the movies. The only time this will happen is when they are operating in a Black Op in an area the US cannot send support. The team will be aware of this fact ahead of time, however.

Many areas of the world have been rumored to have been the target of special recon missions by these units. The other side of the Iron Curtain (when it existed), the Soviet Union, North Korea, Cuba, areas of the Middle East and so on are supposed to have been the target of missions.

While the practice has been discontinued, select older members of Army Special Forces and Navy SEALs have received training in the use of ADMs (Atomic Demolition Munitions-"Backpack nukes"). Older characters could have skills/experiences to reflect this. Delta, also, probably has specially trained teams to help deal with these munitions.

SpecOps members make great additions to DG. Forget what you saw in the movies or read in action books. These men (women are allowed only into Delta and some have gone through SF but only to be trainers then, not operators) have great amounts of mental stability (high SAN). That is a prerequisite. They are highly skilled and their abilities have been enhanced. Members of these units have intelligence and academic skills to rival their civilian counterparts. Many hold degrees and advanced degrees. The amount of planning and research that goes into their operations hones their research capabilities. They have access to equipment, resources, and contacts to enhance their personal network and DG as a whole. Small teams can be put together on a relatively permanent basis to support DG. These units can be formed with an exterior mission, such as Marchinko's Red Cell, while really serving as a research team or strike force.

Revised Templates:

NOTE: The number in parenthesis is the minimum a member of that unit must have in that skill. If you want to run with the big boys, well, you got to pay the cost…

Also, characters should have Attributes of at least 12 or above. Customizing of these templates should occur to take into account a PC's background, other military training and experiences. These Templates only reflect the Unit in questions training program

Ranger-

Demolitions (25), Hide (30), Navigation/Land (50), Parachuting (25), Spot Hidden (50), Special Operations, Rifle (40), Machine Gun, Electronics (25-Commo Gear), Sneak

Special Forces-

Bargain, Demolitions (25), Navigation/Land (50), Parachuting (25), Special Operations, Other Language (25), Fast Talk, Persuade, plus the following based on specialty:

Officer- add Military Science (50)

Intelligence/operations- add Intelligence, Intelligence Analysis, Photography

Weapons- all Firearms Skills must be at 30+ and add mechanical repair (40)

Communications- add Cryptography, Electronics (40), Mechanical Repair, Electrical Repair (30)

Engineer- increase Demolitions to (40), Architecture, Carpentry, Mechanical Repair

Medical- add First Aid (60), Medicine (35), Surgery (20), Pharmacy

SFOD-Delta Operator-

Demolitions (30), Disguise, Drive Auto, Electronics, Parachuting (50), SCUBA (25), Special Operations, Sneak, Spot Hidden, Navigation/Land (60), Hide plus Rifle/Submachine Gun (60), Pistol (50), Shotgun (50)

Security Force Guard-

Spot Hidden, Special Operations, Rifle (30), Shotgun (45), Pistol (45), Mechanical Repair

FAST Trooper-

Same as Security Force Guard above plus Submachine Gun (45)

Recon Marine-

Parachuting (25), SCUBA (25), Cartography, Spot Hidden (50), Navigation/Land (40), Boating (25), Demolitions (25), Hide (40), Sneak (40), Special Operations, Photography, Swim (40)

Force Recon-

ANGLICO-

Use Force Recon above plus Electronics (30)

Scout/Sniper-

Special Operations, Hide (50), Sneak (50), Spot Hidden (50), Track, Rifle (60)

SEAL

Boating (25), Cartography, Hide, Sneak, Spot Hidden, Parachuting (25), SCUBA (40), Special Operations, Navigation/Land (35), Navigation/Sea, Air (35), Swim (45)

CCT-

Parachuting (25), SCUBA (25), Special Operations, Navigation/Land, Navigation/Sea, Air (30), Swim (30), Climb, Spot Hidden, Electronics (30), Electrical Repair, Mechanical Repair

Pararescue-

Use CCT above, replacing Electronics, Electrical Repair and Mechanical Repair with First Aid (60), Medicine (35), Surgery (20) and Pharmacy

SO Meteorologist-

Use CCT above and add Art-Meteorology (45)

SOAR Pilot

Use Template in DG book (Pilot Helicopter-50)

USAF SOC Pilot-

Use Template in DG book (Pilot Aircraft-50)

New Skills/Mechanics

Special Operations (Base-Special)

This "Skill" is a special case. It is bought at a fixed cost of 50 Points. It represents the collection of Special Ops Skills that are not already covered but would be a waste of space to break down into individual skills. The character with this skill is allowed either a Know/Idea roll to represent this specialized training or can use it as a Specialized Sub-skill of another existing skill. Some common uses and mechanics follow:

Rappelling- Can use Climb normally to represent.

Fast Rope- Can use Climb normally to represent.

Knowledge of proper tactical responses (properly planning raids, ambushes, etc.)- Can use Know roll (This does not mean that the action itself is successful, that should be played out. It only allows the character to know the proper action for his character to take)

Survival Skills- can use Know Roll

Area/Cultural/Military knowledge of a Foreign operating area- Allows a Know roll (keepers may wish to limit this to the unit's area specialty)

Forward Observing- Allows a Know Roll to call in Artillery support. An additional Luck roll for it to hit on the Target (Deviate the miss by how much the roll is Failed, a 99-00 represents a "short round on/near the team)

Forward Aerial Observing- As Forward observing above but deals with Aircraft.

This list is by no means exclusive. The skill can be used for any such situation that arises.

Intelligence (Base-Special)

As Special Operations above, this skill is bought for 50 Points and represents specialized training and knowledge of Intelligence Gathering and Intelligence operations.

Intelligence Analysis (Base-0%)

This Skill allows a character to analyze various incoming intelligence sources and draw a coherent idea of the big picture. If successful, the roll will give the character as much information about the situation as allowed. The information may be lessened if sources are inaccurate or incomplete coming in (keeper's choice). Also, the information will only be as good as the amount received. Simple satellite pictures might show military movements or new constructions. Their purpose could then be determined but not what the intent of the owner's is. Add in reports from agents and informants and the potential analysis grows. Failure indicates flawed information of some variety. The Keeper has the final say concerning the amount and quality of information.

Skill Proficiency-

The following Skills should be considered at 25% to have a basic proficiency. If used in their normal state, a Skill roll is not made. Instead, make a Luck roll. If the Luck roll is successful, the skill is successful. If the Roll is failed, the Skill fails in some way. A roll of 99-00% represents a catastrophic failure. For example, the PC has a 25% in Demolitions. Using the skill to place a standard package of assortment of explosives to destroy something, it would be a Luck roll. If failed, the charge may fail to blow, delay its explosion or so on. A 99-00 might represent it going off in the character's hand.

The Skill list is as follows:

Boating

Demolitions

Parachuting (every additional 20 Points placed into the Skill will allow an additional specialty: HALO, LALO, HAHO)

SCUBA

This rule only applies to standard operating use of the skill in question. The use of more advanced methods will require a skill roll. Adverse conditions might also require a Skill roll. Examples would include:

Boating in a heavy storm, HALO jumps, underwater demolitions, specialized SCUBA suits, and so on.

Friction:

A final rule I use is Friction. Simply put, Friction is the fancy, military term for Murphy's Law. Before a mission, make a Luck roll versus the Luck of the lowest member of the team. If failed, something will go wrong on the mission. Some possibilities include:

Faulty intelligence (empty or stronger than expected)

Loss of supplies during infiltration (lost during jump or swamped boat, etc.)

Communications (or some other important piece of equipment) failure

Unexpected premature enemy contact

Well, that is all for now. If anyone is interested, I can prepare additional posts in the following subjects:

OSS History, Organization, Training

Special Operations Training (in depth)

Special Operations Tradecraft

Special Operations History

Special Operations Terminology/Lingo/Slang

Related Special Ops Topics

So if anyone is interested in the above let me know. They would take a little while, but if the interest is there, I'll get to work.


Date: Tue, 30 Mar 1999 23:14:02 -0600
From: "Christopher Carroll"

U.S. Army:
75th Ranger Regiment
Each Battalion contains:
3 Combat Companies with: 3 Rifle Platoons (about 45 men each), Weapons
Platoon (about 23 men). Each Rifle Platoon is made up of 3 Rifle Squads of
three Fire teams each and a machine gun squad.

You might want to check this. I have heard that the 75th uses 3 9-man, 2-team rifle squads plus the MG squad in each platoon.

Special Forces
Organization:
SF Groups
11th (Army Reserve) Located: Fort Meade, Maryland
12th (Army Reserve) Located: Arlington Heights, Illinois

Last I heard, the 11th and 12th SFGs were deactivated. Elements of those groups have been reflagged as parts of the 19th and 20th SFGs.

SF Battalion Support Company
Military Intelligence (MI) Detachment (has 3 SOT-As [Special Operation
Team-A] that deploy with SFOD-As to provide SIGINT and EW capabilities.
Has no interrogation teams attached.)

SOT-As will deploy independently as well was with an ODA

Anyone interested in a good depiction of Delta and the Rangers in action should check out Blackhawk Down by Mark Bowden. It describes TF Ranger and their battle in Mogadishu, showing why urban combat sucks royally.

The intellectual property known as Delta Green is ™ and © the Delta Green Partnership. The contents of this document are © their respective authors, excepting those elements that are components of the Delta Green intellectual property.