Japanese keiretsu groups (archive)
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The Six Major Japanese Keiretsu Groups
The Mitsui Group
- Executive Council: Nimokukai (2nd Thursday Club)
- Founded: October 1961
- Membership: 26 companies
- Average cross-shareholding ratio: 19%
- Number of affiliates (10% equity ownership): 171
- Main Bank: Sakura Bank
- Shosha: Mitsui and Co.
- Major Affiliated Companies: Mitsui Fudosan, Toyota, Toshiba, Ishikawajima-Harima Heavy Industries, Mitsui Trust & Banking, Mitsui Mutual Life Insurance, Mitsui Marine & Fire Insurance, Mitsukoshi, Mitsui Paper Mills, Toray Industries, Mitsui Petrochemical Industries, Mitsui Toatsu Chemical, Mitsui Engineering & Shipbuilding, Japan Steel Works, Denki Kagaku Kogyo, Sanki Engineering, Hokkaido Colliary & Steamship, Onoda Cement, Mitsui Construction, Mitsui Mining, Nippon Flour Mills, Oji Paper, Mitsui OSK Lines, Mitsui Warehouse.
The Mitsubishi Group
- Executive Council: Kinyokai (Friday Club)
- Founded: 1954
- Membership: 29 companies
- Average cross-shareholding ratio: 35%
- Number of affiliates (10% equity ownership): 217
- Main Bank: Mitsubishi Bank
- Shosha: Mitsubishi Corp.
- Major Affiliated Companies: Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Mitsubishi Motors, Mitsubishi Electric, Mitsubishi Trust & Banking, Meiji Mutual Life Insurance, Tokio Marine & Fire Insurance, Mitsubishi Research Institute, Mitsubishi Warehouse and Transportation, Nippon Yusen, Nikon, Mitsubishi Kakoki, Mitsubishi Rayon, Asahi Glass, Mitsubishi Estate, Mitsubishi Construction, Mitsubishi Oil, Kirin Brewery, Mitsubishi Paper Mills, Mitsubishi Petrochemical, Mitsubishi Kasei, Mitsubishi Gas Chemical, Mitsubishi Plastic Industries, Mitsubishi Aluminum, Mitsubishi Steel Manufacturing, Mitsubishi Materials, Mitsubishi Cable Industries, Mitsubishi Shindoh.
The Sumitomo Group
- Executive Council: Hakusuikai (White Water Club)
- Founded: April 1951
- Membership: 20 companies
- Average cross-shareholding ratio: 27%
- Number of affiliates (10% equity ownership): 164
- Main Bank: Sumitomo Bank
- Shosha: Sumitomo Corp.
- Major Affiliated Companies: Sumitomo Chemical, Sumitomo Metal Mining, Sumitomo Trust & Banking, Sumitomo Marine & Fire Insurance, Sumitomo Life Insurance, NEC, Sumitomo Heavy Industries, Sumitomo Electric Industries, Sumitomo Cement, Sumitomo Light Metal Industries, Nippon Sheet Glass, Sumitomo Warehouse, Sumitomo Construction, Sumitomo Metal Industries, Sumitomo Coal Mining, Sumitomo Forestry, Sumitomo Realty & Development, Sumitomo Bakelite.
The Fuyo Group
- Executive Council: Fuyokai
- Founded: January 1966
- Membership: 29 companies
- Average cross-shareholding ratio: 15%
- Number of affiliates (10% equity ownership): 223
- Main Bank: Fuji Bank
- Shosha: Marubeni
- Major Affiliated Companies: Yasuda Trust & Banking, Yasuda Fire & Marine Insurance, Yasuda Mutual Life Insurance, Hitachi, Nissan Motor, Nichirei, Yokogawa Electric, Canon, Sapporo Breweries, Oki Electric, Nisshin Flour Milling, Taisei, Showa Line, Tokyo Tatemono, Kubota, Tonen, Kureha Chemical Industries, Nippon Oil & Fats, Showa Denko, NSK, Sanyo-Kokusaku Pulp, Keihin Electric Express Railway, Tobu Railway, Nihon Cement, NKK, Toho Rayon, Nisshinbo Industries.
The Sanwa Group
- Executive Council: Sansuikai (3rd Wednesday Club)
- Founded: February 1967
- Membership: 44 companies
- Average cross-shareholding ratio: 16.5%
- Number of affiliates (10% equity ownership): 247
- Main Bank: Sanwa Bank
- Shosha: Nissho Iwai
- Major Affiliated Companies: Toyo Trust & Banking, Hitachi, Sharp, Fujisawa Pharmaceuticals, Daihatsu Motor, Suntory, Hankyu, Sekisui House, Kansai Paint, Ube Industries, Osaka Cement, Kobe Steel, Hoya, Navix Line, Kyocera, Zenitaka, Ohbayashi, Cosmo Oil, Hitachi Cable, Toyo Tire & Rubber, Itoham Foods, Nichimen, Toyo Construction, NTN Corporation, Sekisui Chemical, Nitto Electric Industries, Takashimaya, Hitachi Zosen, Hitachi Chemical, Shin Meiwa, Iwatani International, Orix, Tokuyama Soda, Iwatsu Electric, Tanabe Seiyaku, Nippon Express, Nakayama Steel Works, Teijin, Hitachi Metals, Nisshin Steel, Unitika.
The Daiichi Kangyo Group
- Executive Council: Sankinkai (3rd Friday Club)
- Founded: January 1978
- Membership: 48 companies
- Average cross-shareholding ratio: 12%
- Number of affiliates (10% equity ownership): 190
- Main Bank: Daiichi Kangyo Bank
- Shosha: C. Itoh and Co. (Itochu)
- Major Affiliated Companies: Fukoku Mutual Life Insurance, Asahi Mutual Life Insurance, Nissan Fire & Marine Insurance, Taisei Fire & Marine Insurance, Ishikawajima-Harima Heavy Industries, Hitachi, Kawasaki Heavy Industries, Kawasaki Steel, Itsuzu Motors, Orient Corporation, Kankaku Securities, Yokohama Rubber, Kanematsu, Denki Kagaku Kogyo, Fuji Electric, Showa Shell Sekiyu, Nippon Express, Nippon Zeon, Kawasho, Seibu Department Stores, Shiseido, Kobe Steel, Tokyo Dome, Shimizu, Asahi Chemical Industries, Lion, Furukawa Company, Nippon Columbia, Honshu Paper, Shibusawa Warehouse, Fujitsu, Furukawa Electric, Kyowa Hakko, Yaskawa Electric, Iseki, Japan Metals & Chemicals, Asahi Denka Kogyo, Asahi Optical, Kawasaki Kisen, Oji Paper, Ebara, Sankyo, Chichibu Cement
Source: Keiretsu-Inside the Hidden Japanese Conglomerates, 1996, K. Miyashita & D. Russel